BiblePay (BBP) is a Charity Christian Cryptocurrency that donates 10% of coins to Charity every month, sponsoring orphans
First of all, my threat model: I'm just an average person that wants to AVOID the maximum I can to be monitored and tracked by the government and big corps, a lot of people out there REALLY hate me and I've gone through lots of harassment and other stuff, I also plan to take my activism and love for freedom more seriously and to do stuff that could potentially lead me to very high danger or even put my life on the line. That being said, my main focus is on something that is privacy-friendly but also something with decent security (no point having a lot of privacy if a script kiddie can just break into it an boom, everything is gone) anonymity is also desirable but I'm pretty aware that true 100% anonymity is simply not possible and to achieve the maximum you can of it currently you'd have to give up A LOT of stuff in which I don't think I really could. So basically, everything that I said + I don't want to give up some hobbies of mine (as playing games etc) submitted by
Here's what I use/have done so far, most of it is based on privacytools.io list and research I've done.
Google Pixel 3a XL running GrapheneOS
Apps: Stock apps (Vanadium, Gallery, Clock, Contacts etc) + F-DROID, NewPipe, OsmAnd+, Joplin, Tutanota, K-9 Mail, Aegis Authenticator, KeePassDX, Syncthing, Signal, Librera PRO, Vinyl, Open Camera and Wireguard.
I also use BlahDNS as my private DNS.
Other smartphone stuff/habits: I use a Supershieldz Anti Spy Tempered Glass Screen Protector on my phone and I also have a Faraday Sleeve from Silent Pocket which my phone is on most of the times (I don't have smartphone addiction and would likely advice you to break free from smartphone addiction if you have it). I NEVER use bluetooth (thank god Pixel 3a have a headphone jack so yeah, no bluetooth earphones here) and always keep my Wi-Fi off if I'm not using it.
I have a desktop that I built (specs: Asus B450M Gaming, AMD Ryzen 3 3300X, Radeon RX 580 8GB, 16GB DDR4 2666Mhz, 3TB HDD, 480GB SSD) that is dualbooted with QubesOS and Arch Linux.
Qubes is my main OS that I use as daily driver and for my tasks, I use Arch for gaming.
I've installed linux-hardened and its headers packages on my Arch + further kernel hardening using systctl and boot parameters, AppArmor as my MAC system and bubblewrap for sandboxing programs. I also spoof my MAC address and have restricted root access, I've also protected my GRUB with password (and use encrypted boot) and have enabled Microcode updates and have NTP and IPV6 disabled.
Also on Arch, I use iptables as a firewall denying all incoming traffic, and since it's my gaming PC, I don't game on the OS, instead, I use a KVM/QEMU Windows VM for gaming (search "How I Built The "Poor-Shamed" Computer" video to see what I'm talking about) I also use full disk encryption.
E-Mails: I use ProtonMail (Plus Account paid with bitcoin) and Tutanota (free account as they don't accept crypto payment yet, come on Tutanota, I've been waiting for it for 2 years already) since I have plus account on ProtonMail it allows me to use ProtonMail Bridge and use it on Claws Mail (desktop) and K-9 Mail (mobile) as for Tutanota I use both desktop and mobile app.
Some other e-mails habits of mine: I use e-mail aliases (ProtonMail plus account provides you with 5) and each alias is used for different tasks (as one for shopping, one for banking, one for accounts etc) and none of my e-mails have my real name on it or something that could be used to identify me. I also highly avoid using stuff that require e-mail/e-mail verification for usage (e-mail is such a pain in the ass tbh) I also make use of Spamgourmet for stuff like temporary e-mail (best service I found for this doing my research, dunno if it's really the best tho, heard that AnonAddy does kinda the same stuff but dunno, recommendations are welcomed)
Browsers/Search Engine: As mentioned, I use Vanadium (Graphene's stock browser) on mobile as it is the recommended browser by Graphene and the one with the best security for Android, for desktop I use a Hardened Firefox (pretty aware of Firefox's security not being that good, but it's the best browser for PC for me as Ungoogled Chromium is still not there in A LOT of things + inherent problems of Chrome as not being able to disable WebRTC unless you use an extension etc) with ghacks-user.js and uBlock Origin (hard mode), uMatrix (globally blocking first party scripts), HTTPS Everywhere (EASE Mode), Decentraleyes (set the recommended rules for both uBlock Origin and uMatrix) and Temporary Containers as addons. I also use Tor Browser (Safest Mode) on a Whonix VM on Qubes sometimes. DuckDuckGo is my to-go search engine and I use DNS over HTTPS on Firefox (BlahDNS as my provider once again)
VPN: I use Mullvad (guess you can mention it here since it's PTIO's recommended) paid with bitcoin and honestly best service available tbh. I use Mullvad's multihop implementation on Wireguard which I manually set myself as I had the time and patience to learn how.
password manager: KeePassXC on desktop and KeePassDX on my smartphone, my password database for my desktop is stored on a USB flash driver I encrypted with VeraCrypt.
some other software on desktop: LibreOffice (as a Microsoft Office substitute), GIMP (Photshop substitute), Vim (I use it for multiple purposes, mainly coding IDE and as a text editor), VLC (media player), Bisq (bitcoin exchange), Wasabi (bitcoin wallet), OBS (screen recording), Syncthing (file sync), qBitTorrent (torrent client) and Element (federated real-time communication software). I sadly couldn't find a good open-source substitute to Sony Vegas (tested many, but none was in the same level of Vegas imo, KDENLive is okay tho) so I just use it on a VM if I need it (Windows VM solely for the purpose of video editing, not the same one I use for gaming)
router: I have an Asus RT-AC68U with OpenWRT as its firmware. I also set a VPN on it.
cryptocurrency hardware wallet: I store all of my cryptocurrency (Bitcoin and Monero) on a Ledger Nano S, about 97% of my money is on crypto so a hardware wallet is a must for me.
I have lots of USB flash drivers that I use for Live ISOs and for encrypted backups. I also have a USB Data Blocker from PortaPow that I generally use if I need to charge my cellphone in public or in a hotel while on a trip (rare occasion tbh).
I have a Logitech C920e as webcam and a Blue Yeti microphone in which I never let them plugged, I only plug them if it's necessary and after I'm done I just unplug them.
I also have a Nintendo Switch Lite as a gaming console that I most of the times just use offline, I just connect to the internet if needed for a software update and then just turn the Wi-Fi off from it.
Other Habits/Things I've done:
payments: I simply AVOID using credit card, I try to always pay on cash (I live in a third-world country so thank god most of people here still depend on cash only) physically and online I try my best to either by using cryptocurrency or using gift cards/cash by mail if crypto isn't available. I usually buy crypto on Bisq as I just don't trust any KYC exchange (and neither should you) and since there aren't many people here in my area to do face to face bitcoin trade (and I'm skeptical of face to face tbh), I use the Wasabi Wallet (desktop) to coinjoin bitcoin before buying anything as this allows a bit more of privacy, I also coinjoin on Wasabi before sending my bitcoins to my hardware wallet. I also don't have a high consumerism drive so I'm not constantly wanting to buy everything that I see (which helps a lot on this criteria)
social media/accounts: as noted, aside from Signal and Element (which I don't even use that often) I just don't REALLY use any social media (tried Mastodon for a while but I was honestly felt it kinda desert there and most of its userbase from what I've seen were some people I'd just... rather don't hang with tbh) and, althoug not something necessary is something that I really advise people to as social media is literally a poison to your mind.
I also don't own any streaming service like Netflix/Amazon Prime/Spotify etc, I basically pirate series/movies/songs and that's it.
I've also deleted ALL my old accounts from social media (like Twitter etc) and old e-mails. ALL of my important and main accounts have 2FA enabled and are protected by a strong password (I use KeePass to generate a 35 character lenght password with numbers, capital letters, special symbols etc, each account uses a unique password) I also NEVER use my real name on any account and NEVER post any pictures of myself (I rarely take pictures of stuff if anything)
iot/smart devices: aside from my smartphone, I don't have any IOT/smart device as I honestly see no need for them (and most of them are WAY too expensive on third-world countries)
files: I constatly backup all of my files (each two weeks) on encrypted flash drivers, I also use BleachBit for temporary data cleaning and data/file shredding. I also use Syncthing as a substitute to stuff like Google Drive.
learn to self-host and self-host an e-mail/NextCloud (and maybe even a VPN)
find something like BurneHushed but FOSS (if you know any please let me know)
So, how is it? anything that I should do that I'm probably not doing?
Market cap circa 100k
High risk play
What is Chimera?
Chimera is an ERC-20 token (Ethereum) that aims to remove the transparency seen in typical Ethereum tokens. The pros and cons for transparency vary from person to person, with some people preferring an asset such as Monero over something like Bitcoin. Chimera is essentially Ethereum's solution to creating an anonymous service on Ethereum's blockchain. Thus, Chimera can be thought of a "private version of Ethereum" - Chimera holds all the capabilities as Ethereum with reduced transparency. Since the development team plans to have Chimera be used as a payment method, it can be seen as a currency.
Why buy Chimera?
Anyone who is interested in escaping the transparency of the blockchain would benefit from Chimera's technology. Whether you are looking to hide large amounts of funds or to simply stay anonymous, using Chimera's services leaves no paper trails, thus giving benefit to those seeking sanction from taxing authorities (although our team does not endorse this). Chimera tokens can also be used as a form of payment towards services our team will offer in the future.
What will Chimera offer to holders?
Chimera holders benefit by not being listed under the token contract address when searched on current block explorers. The transactions themselves can only be viewed in raw hexadecimal form and need to be sought out and converted to get the values of transaction functions. This information (commonly displayed for ERC-20 tokens) has been hidden by our token, preventing services such as WhaleWatcher.io from being able to scan the blockchain for large transactions and thus prevents them from posting the information on social media sites. For large coin holders, whale watching services can be trouble. Chimera and its services aim to surpass this hurdle.
What incentives does Chimera give?
Chimera can be viewed as a private form of Ethereum. It contains all the core functionalities of the Ethereum token and removes the associated transparency. Using Chimera as a currency provides incentives such as secure and anonymous transfers, a store of value over time, and early access to the products and services the Chimera team will be offering.
How is this different than any other ERC-20 token?
Chimera differs from most ERC-20 tokens in the sense that the token contract will not display the holders or quantities. This means that making a script/tool to collect the information of token holders is much harder to achieve than regular ERC-20 tokens. When Chimera is sent through the Scrambler service, it creates a chain of transactions effectively making the time complexity of a script of software exponential rather than linear. The only "easy to see" transactions are from the initial contract creation, minting, and burning.
But wait - can't we still technically see transactions if we look hard enough?
While block explorers such as Etherscan typically have trouble displaying the "To" address and amount with our token, it is not completely impossible to trace transactions. While users take part in Chimera's Scrambler, the difficulty of tracing the recipients grows exponentially. As more "middle wallets" are added, the complexity becomes even stronger.
What's in store for the future?
As of now, the Chimera team has their first main net service working at https://chimera.exchange/scrambler
. This service allows you to further conceal a transfer of funds. Future projects include a crypto-based subscription website for content and media creators. Customers will be able to pay in Chimera as well as other major crypto assets to unlock media hosted by a creator, essentially creating the most anonymous subscription space to host your photos and videos. Make sure to check out our News webpage and Twitter for updates!
Uniswap v1 https://v1.uniswap.exchange/swap
100m total supply. Circ supply is 4.5m https://chimera.exchange/statistics/circulating
Useful links https://www.coingecko.com/en/coins/chimera https://etherscan.io/
32ed440c312910cfc4a2e4d52867caf https://twitter.com/ChimeraToken https://forkdelta.app/#!/trade/0x37737ad7e32ed440c312910cfc4a2e4d52867caf-ETH https://chimera.exchange
Newly incorporated and are now Chimera Digital, Inc based out of Ontario, Canada. See official documentation:
Primary focus right now is to finish the last of the security tests for the wallet scramblemixer (now being called Scram!) and a major website redesign. Once they are up and running, they will aggressively apply to dexes to gain as much organic notoriety and liquidity as possible without having to take on any large investors.
Whitepaper is being fully reworked atm.
LinkedIn profiles for some of team: Lead Developer Alex can be found here: https://www.linkedin.com/in/alex-schwarz-94248269/
and here: https://www.linkedin.com/in/christina-tarpley-b1baa792/
If you look at etherscan you will see the tech working. It will show no transfers. However compare this with uniswap transactions and you will see the real movement.
Nice tweet by a good team: https://twitter.com/binanceaudit/status/1266934471674277889?s=19
Federal Corporation Information - 1207567-9 - Online Filing Centre - Corporations Canada - Corporations - Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/sccc/CorporationsCanada/fdrlCrpDtls.html?corpId=12075679&V_TOKEN=1591294452581&crpNm=&crpNmbr=1207567-9&bsNmbr=
Key points to note:
- Mixer tech on ether network.
- Etherscan can not track real movements due to this. Uniswap info will show transactions though.
- Team is only a few months old
- Whitepaper is being redesigned.
- Website is being redesigned
- 100k market cap should be looked at as an idea and researched further with their team
- Incorporation documents above are legitimate.
This is a followup of my older post about the history of payment channel mechanisms
The "modern" payment channel system is Lightning Network, which uses bidirectional indefinite-lifetime channels, using HTLCs to trustlessly route through the network.
However, at least one other payment channel mechanism was developed at roughly the same time as Lightning, and there are also further proposals that are intended to replace the core payment channel mechanism in use by Lightning.
Now, in principle, the "magic" of Lightning lies in combining two ingredients:
- Offchain updateable systems.
- HTLCs to implement atomic cross-system swaps.
We can replace the exact mechanism implementing an offchain updateable system. Secondly we can replace the use of HTLCs with another atomic cross-system swap, which is what we would do when we eventually switch to payment points and scalars from payment hashes and preimages.
So let's clarify what I'll be discussing here:
- I will be discussing mechanisms for the offchain updateable system, which are generally called "payment channel mechanisms". The exact contracts that can be transported across such systems, such as HTLCs, the Scriptless-Script point-based variant, and Discrete Log Contracts, will have to wait another post.
- Payment channel mechanisms are designed to be trust-minimized. They might not achieve this design goal (consider the broken Satoshi sequence numbers, or the pre-SegWit Spilman, which I still class as "payment channel mechanism"), but mechanisms which invoke trust in one participant or other as inherent parts of their design are not true payment channels. Such constructions might be of interest, but I will not discuss them here.
Now I might use "we" here to refer to what "we" did to the design of Bitcoin, but it is only because "we" are all Satoshi, except for Craig Steven Wright.
So, let's present the other payment channel mechanisms. But first, a digression.
Digression: the new nSequence and OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY
The new relative-timelock semantics of nSequence.
Last time we used nSequence, we had the unfortunate problem that it would be easy to rip off people by offering a higher miner fee for older state where we own more funds, then convince the other side of the channel to give us goods in exchange for a new state with tiny miner fees, then publish both the old state and the new state, then taunt the miners with "so which state is gonna earn you more fees huh huh huh?".
This problem, originally failed by Satoshi, was such a massive facepalm that, in honor of miners doing the economically-rational thing in the face of developer and user demands when given a non-final nSequence, we decided to use nSequence as a flag for the opt-in replace-by-fee.
Basically, under opt-in replace-by-fee, if a transaction had an nSequence that was not 0xFFFFFFFF or 0xFFFFFFFE, then it was opt-in RBF (BIP125). Because you'd totally
abuse nSequence to bribe miners in order to steal money from your bartender, especially if your bartender is not a werebear.
Of course, using a 4-byte field for a one-bit flag (to opt-in to RBF or not) was a massive waste of space, so when people started proposing relative locktimes, the nSequence field was repurposed.
Basically, in Bitcoin as of the time of this writing (early 2020) if nSequence is less than 0x80000000 it can be interpreted as a relative timelock. I'll spare you the details here, BIP68
has them, but basically nSequence can indicate (much like nLockTime) either a "real world" relative lock time (i.e. the output must have been confirmed for X seconds before it can be spent using a transaction with a non-zero nSequence) or the actual real world, which is measured in blocks (i.e. the output must have been confirmed for N blocks before it can be spent using a transaction with a non-zero nSequence). Of course, this is the Bitcoin universe and "seconds" is a merely human delusion, so we will use blocks exclusively.
And similarly to OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY, we also added OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY in BIP112
. This ensures that the nSequence field is a relative-locktime (i.e. less than 0x80000000) and that it is the specified type (block-based or seconds-based) and that it is equal or higher to the specified minimum relative locktime.
It is important to mention the new, modern meaning of nSequence, because it is central to many of the modern payment channel mechanisms, including Lightning Poon-Dryja.
- Poetic justice is a thing. Go go new nSequence!
Decker-Wattenhofer "Duplex Micropayment Channels"
Mechanisms-within-mechanisms for a punishment-free bidirectional indefinite-lifetime payment channel.
The Decker-Wattenhofer paper was published in 2015, but the Poon-Dryja "Lightning Network" paper was published in 2016. However, the Decker-Wattenhofer paper mentions the Lightning mechanism, specifically mentioning the need to store every old revocation key (i.e. the problem I mentioned last time that was solved using RustyReddit
shachains). Maybe Poon-Dryja presented the Lightning Network before making a final published paper in 2016, or something. Either that or cdecker
is the Bitcoin time traveler.
It's a little hard to get an online copy now, but as of late 2019 this seems to work: copy
Now the interesting bit is that Decker-Wattenhofer achieves its goals by combining multiple mechanisms that are, by themselves, workable payment channel mechanisms already, except each has some massive drawbacks. By combining them, we can minimize the drawbacks.
So let's go through the individual pieces.
Indefinite-lifetime Spilman channels
As mentioned before, Spilman channels have the drawback that they have a limited lifetime: the lock time indicated in the backoff transaction or backoff branch of the script. However, instead of an absolute lock time, we can use a relative
In order to do so, we use a "kickoff" transaction, between the backoff transaction and the funding transaction. Our opening ritual goes this way, between you and our gender-neutral bartender-bancho werebear:
- First, you compute the txid for the funding transaction and the kickoff transaction. The funding transaction takes some of your funds and puts it into a 2-of-2 between you and the bartender, and the kickoff is a 1-input 1-output transaction that spends the funding transaction and outputs to another 2-of-2 between you and the bartender.
- Then, you generate the backoff transaction, which spends the kickoff transaction and returns all the funds to you. The backoff has a non-zero nSequence, indicating a delay of a number of blocks agreed between you, which is a security/convenience tradeoff parameter
- You sign the backoff transaction, then send it to the bartender.
- The bartender signs the backoff, and gives back the fully-signed transaction to you.
- You sign the kickoff transaction, then send it to the bartender.
- The bartender signs the kickoff, and gives it back to you fully signed.
- You sign and broadcast the funding transaction, and both of you wait for the funding transaction to be deeply confirmed.
The above setup assumes you're using SegWit, because transaction malleability fix.
At any time, either you or the bartender can broadcast the kickoff transaction, and once that is done, this indicates closure of the channel. You do this if you have drunk enough alcoholic beverages, or the bartender could do this when he or she is closing the bar.
Now, to get your drinks, you do:
- Sign a transaction spending the kickoff, and adding more funds to the bartender, to buy a drink. This transaction is not encumbered with an nSequence.
- Hand the signed transaction to the bartender, who provides you with your next drink.
The channel is closed by publishing the kickoff transaction. Both of you have a fully-signed copy of the kickoff, so either of you can initiate the close.
On closure (publication and confirmation of the kickoff transaction), there are two cases:
- You fail to pick up any chicks at the bar (I prefer female humans of optimum reproductive age myself rather than nestling birds, but hey, you do you) so you didn't actually spend for drinks at all. In this case, the bartender is not holding any transactions that can spend the kickoff transaction. You wait for the agreed-upon delay after the kickoff is confirmed, and then publish the backoff transaction and get back all the funds that you didn't spend.
- You spend all your money on chicks and end up having to be kicked into a cab to get back to your domicile, because even juvenile birds can out-drink you, you pushover. The bartender then uses the latest transaction you gave (the one that gives the most money to him or her --- it would be foolish of him or her to use an earlier version with less money!), signs it, and broadcasts it to get his or her share of the money from the kickoff transaction.
- Pro: Number of updates is limited only by the amount of money you have in the "payer" side of the channel.
- Pro: no lifetime limit. You can keep the channel open indefinitely if you don't transact over it.
- Pro: The delay can be very small.
- Con: Unidirectional.
Decrementing nSequence channels
Enforcing order by reducing relative locktimes.
I believe this to be novel to the Decker-Wattenhofer mechanism, though I might be missing some predecessor.
This again uses the new relative-locktime meaning of nSequence. As such, it also uses a kickoff transaction like the above indefinite-lifetime Spilman channel. Set up is very similar to the setup of the above indefinite-lifetime Spilman channel, except that because this is bidirectional, we can actually have both sides put money into the initial starting backoff transaction.
We also rename the "backoff" transaction to "state" transaction. Basically, the state transaction indicates how the money in the channel is divided up between the two participants. The "backoff" we sign during the funding ritual is now the first state
transaction. Both sides keep track of the current state transaction (which is initialized to the first state transaction on channel establishment).
Finally, the starting nSequence of the first state transaction is very large (usually in the dozens or low hundreds of blocks).
Suppose one participant wants to pay the other. The ritual done is then:
- A new version of the current state transaction is created with more money in the payee side.
- This new version has nSequence that is one block lower than the current state transaction (in practice it should be a few blocks lower, not just one, because sometimes miners find blocks in quick succession).
- Both sides exchange signatures for the new state transaction.
- Both sides set the new state transaction as the current state transaction that will be the basis for the next payment.
When the channel is closed by publication of the kickoff transaction, then the transaction with the lowest nSequence becomes valid earlier than the other state transactions. This is enough to enforce that the most recent state transaction (the one with the lowest nSequence, and thus the first to become valid) is published.
- Pro: bidirectional.
- Pro: indefinite lifetime, at least if no updates are done.
- Pro: it shows that life is not without a sense of irony. The original design for nSequence replacement required an incrementing nSequence using the original Satoshi's Vision interpretation of nSequence (which doesn't work). But this channel mechanism instead uses a decrementing nSequence using the new Bitcoin Core interpretation of nSequence as a relative timelock (which does, in fact, work).
- Con: Number of updates is limited by the starting maximum nSequence delay. Increasing this delay increases the encumbrance if the channel is closed without any activity, but reducing this delay reduces the number of payments in either direction you can use before you have to close the channel and recreate it. For example, let's have a maximum of 144 blocks of delay. Each update, we decrement the nSequence by 4, because that handles up to the very rare case where up to 3 blocks arrive in very close succession to each other. That only gives us 36 updates for a worst-case of one day of delay, a very bad tradeoff.
- Con: You can only be safely offline for a number of blocks equal to the "step", but the maximum delay you may incur is the product of the step times the number of updates you want to make. So you want a small step (because you don't want your worst-case lock time to be large) but you want a big step (because you want to still be safe even if you go offline for a long time).
Combining the ingredients of the Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels concoction.
Of note is that we can "chain" these mechanisms together in such a way that we strengthen their strengths while covering their weaknesses.
A note is that both the indefinite-lifetime nSequence Spilman variant, and the above decrementing nSequence mechanism, both have "kickoff" transactions.
However, when we chain the two mechanisms together, it turns out that the final transaction of one
mechanism also serves as the kickoff of the next
mechanism in the chain.
So for example, let's chain two of those decrementing nSequence channels together. Let's make them 144 blocks maximum delay each, and decrement in units of 4 blocks, so each of the chained mechanisms can do 37 updates each.
We start up a new channel with the following transactions:
- A funding transaction paying to a 2-of-2, confirmed deeply onchain. All other transactions are offchain until closure.
- A kickoff transaction spending the funding transaction output, paying to a 2-of-2.
- A "stage 1" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the kickoff, with current nSequence 144, paying to a 2-of-2.
- A "stage 2" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the stage 1, with current nSequence 144, paying to the initial state of the channel.
When we update this channel, we first update the "stage 2" state transaction, replacing it with an nSequence lower by 4 blocks. So after one update our transactions are:
- A funding transaction paying to a 2-of-2, confirmed deeply onchain. All other transactions are offchain until closure.
- A kickoff transaction spending the funding transaction output, paying to a 2-of-2.
- A "stage 1" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the kickoff, with current nSequence 144, paying to a 2-of-2.
- A "stage 2" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the stage 1, with current nSequence 140, paying to the second state of the channel.
The first 3 transactions are the same, only the last one is replaced with a state transaction with lower `nSequence.
Things become interesting when we reach the "stage 2" having nSequence 0. On the next update, we create a new "stage 1", with an nSequence that is 4 lower, and "reset" the "stage 2" back to an nSequence of 144.
This is safe because even though we have a "stage 2" with shorter nSequence, that stage 2 spends a stage 1 with an nSequence of 144, and the stage 1 with nSequence of 140 would beat it to the blockchain first.
This results in us having, not 36 + 36 updates, but instead 36 * 36 updates (1296 updates). 1296 updates is still kinda piddling, but that's much better than just a single-stage decrementing nSequence channel.
The number of stages can be extended indefinitely, and your only drawback would be the amount of blockchain space you'd spend for a unilateral close. Mutual cooperative closes can always shortcut the entire stack of staged transactions and cut it to a single mutual cooperative close transaction.
But that's not all! You might be wondering about the term "duplex" in the name "Duplex Micropayment Channels".
That's because the last decrementing nSequence stage does not hold the money of the participants directly. Instead, the last stage holds two indefinite-lifetime Spilman channels. As you might remember, Spilman channels are unidirectional, so the two Spilman channels represent both directions of the channel. Thus, duplex.
Let's go back to you and your favorite werebear bartender. If you were using a Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channel, you'd have several stages of decrementing nSequence, terminated in two Spilman channels, a you-to-bartender channel and a bartender-to-you channel.
Suppose that, while drinking, the bartender offers you a rebate on each drink if you do some particular service for him or her. Let us not discuss what service this is and leave it to your imagination. So you pay for a drink, decide you want to get the rebate, and perform a service that the bartender finds enjoyable. So you transfer some funds on the you-to-bartender direction, and then later the bartender transfers some funds in the bartender-to-you channel after greatly enjoying your service.
Suppose you now exhaust the you-to-bartender direction. However, you note that the rebates you've earned are enough to buy a few more drinks. What you do instead is to update the staged decrementing nSequence mechanisms, and recreate the two Spilman directions such that the you-to-bartender direction contains all your current funds and the bartender-to-you direction contains all the bartender's funds. With this, you are now able to spend even the money you earned from rebates. At the same time, even if the staged decrementing nSequence mechanisms only have a few hundred thousand updates, you can still extend the practical number of updates as long as you don't have to reset the Spilman channels too often.
- Pro: chaining allows more possible updates!
- Pro: no "toxic waste"! That is, old backups of your channel state database won't cause you to lose funds automatically.
- Con: unilateral closes have long lock times, due to the chaining of decrementing-nSequence mechanisms.
- Con: unilateral closes put a lot of transactions onchain, due to the chaining of multiple nested mechanisms.
- Con: HTLCs are affected by the total nSequence delay needed by the mechanism. This is because HTLCs have an absolute timelock in their contract, and this can only be enforced onchain. However, the existence of nSequence delays means that absolute timelocks need to trigger unilateral closes several blocks before the absolute timelock, by the nSequence total delta of all the stacked mechanisms. In Poon-Dryja you can safely keep a channel open until just before the absolute timelock expires.
- Con: It's not clear to me if the cancellable HTLCs used by Lightning can be hosted by Spilman channels. The HTLCs used in Lightning are "cancellable" because of a nifty ability of every offchain update mechanism: every contract has an additional clause "... or if every signer of the offchain update mechanism agrees, we can ignore this contract and place its funds wherever we agree on". This is not a degradation of security since the HTLCs in a channel are between the two users of the channel, so both of them need to agree anyway in order to accept such a cancellation. This ability is used to propagate forwarding failures back to the payer: instead of waiting for the HTLCs to time out, the node just says to the sender "between you and me, this HTLC won't propagate anyway, because 'insert some reason here', so let's just put the money in it back to you". However, this seems unsafe with Spilman channels, as a cancelled HTLC will still be available on older states of the Spilman channel, and potentially claimable by the payee end up until the timelock. Removing the Spilman channels at the end would remove this issue, but now you are limited to a few hundred thousand updates even with lots of decrementing-nSequence layers.
Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer Channel Factories
Because you like channels so much, you put channels inside channels so you could pay while you pay. I N C E P T I O N
The Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels introduced the possibility of nesting a channel mechanism inside another channel mechanism. For example, it suggests nesting a decrementing-nSequence mechanism inside another decrementing-nSequence mechanism, and having as well an unlimited-lifetime Spilman channel at the end. In the Decker-Wattenhofer case, it is used to support the weakness of one mechanism with the strength of another mechanism.
One thing to note is that while the unlimited-lifetime Spilman channel variant used is inherently two-participant (there is one payer and one payee), the decrementing-nSequence channel mechanism can be multiparticipant.
Another thing of note is that nothing prevents one mechanism from hosting just one inner mechanism, just as it is perfectly fine for a Lightning Network channel to have multiple HTLCs in-flight, plus the money in your side, plus the money in the counterparty's side. As these are "just" Bitcoin-enforceable contracts, there is no fundamental difference between an HTLC, and a payment channel mechanism.
Thus the most basic idea of the Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer Channel Factories paper is simply that we can have a multiparticipant update mechanism host multiple two-party update mechanisms. The outer multiparticipant update mechanism is called a "channel factory" while the inner two-party update mechanisms are called "channels".
The exact mechanism used in the Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer paper uses several decrementing-nSequence mechanisms to implement the factory, and Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels to implement the channel layer.
However, as noted before, there is no fundamental difference between a Poon-Dryja channel and an HTLC. So it is in fact possible to have chained Decker-Wattenhofer decrementing-nSequence mechanisms to implement the factory level, while the channels are simply Poon-Dryja channels.
So this concludes for now an alternative mechanism to the classic Poon-Dryja that Lightning uses. The tradeoffs are significantly different between Decker-Wattenhofer vs Poon-Dryja:
- Decker-Wattenhofer: No toxic waste: old data stolen from you, or which you inadvertently use, is not going to lose all your funds.
- Decker-Wattenhofer: Multiple participants in a single offchain mechanism, enabling things like Channel Factories.
- Poon-Dryja: Doesn't have ridiculously long lock times in the unilateral close case.
- Poon-Dryja: Supports HTLCs for trustless forwarding (not clear if Decker-Wattenhofer fully supports this without sacrificing the duplexed indefinite-lifetime Spilman channels at the end).
Copyright 2020 Alan Manuel K. Gloria. Released under CC-BY.
Latest News (most recent first) - Instant channels enable safe Lightning payments with unconfirmed funding Beta - Feb 10, 2019 - Voyager, New trading app from Uber & E-Trade execs announce launch date - Feb 9, 2019 - bumi/blockstream_satellite ruby gem for the Blockstream Satellite API - Feb 8, 2019 - New Zap Desktop 0.3.4 is out. New features, massive performance - Feb 8, 2019 - New release: @lightning desktop app v0.4.0-alpha - Feb 8, 2019 - valerio-vaccaro/Liquid-dashboard - Feb 7, 2019 - Japanese SBI Holdings will allow trading of coins - March 2019 - lnd v0.5.2-beta released - Feb 6, 2019 - Koala studios launches online LN gaming platform - Feb 6, 2019 - Independent Reserve has become the first #crypto exchange in Australia to be insured, with coverage underwritten by Lloyd's of London. - Feb 6, 2019 - Coinbase announces BTC support for their mobile (keep your own keys) wallet - Feb 6, 2019 - Blockstream published a new open source Proof of Reserves tool. - Feb 5, 2019 - RTL release v0.1.14-alpha - Feb 5, 2019 - dr-orlovsky/typhon-spec spec for new trestles side chain published - Feb 5, 2019 - Payment requests coming soon to BTCPay. - Feb 5th, 2019 - Kraken Acquires Futures Startup In Deal Worth At Least $100 Million - Feb 5th, 2019 - Next Blockchain cruise scheduled for June 9-13 - Feb 4, 2019 - Work on a GoTenna plugin to Electrum wallet in progress - Feb 4, 2019 - Bitcoin Candy Dispensers being open sourced - Feb 4, 2019 - New release of JoinMarket v0.5.3 - Feb 4, 2019 - Prime Trust won’t charge its clients to custody digital assets any longer. - Feb 4, 2019 - nodogsplash/nodogsplash wifi access using LN - Feb 3, 2019 - @tippin_me Receive tips using Lightning Network adds message feature - Feb 3, 2019 - Bitcoin-for-Taxes Bill in NH Unanimously Approved by House Subcommittee - Feb 3, 2019 - Full support for native segwit merged into bitcoinj - Feb 3, 2019 - Bitfury is partnering with financial services firm Final Frontier! - Feb 2, 2019 - Now you can open #LightningNetwork channels in @LightningJoule - Feb 2, 2019 - Integrating Blockstream’s Liquid payments on SideShift AI - Feb 1, 2019 - Wyoming legislature passes bill to recognize cryptocurrency as money - Feb 1, 2019 - Casa is open sourcing the code for the Casa Node - Feb 1, 2019 - Casa Browser Extension released - v0.5.2-beta-rc6 of lnd, full release getting very close now - Feb 1, 2019 - Tallycoin adds subscriptions and paywall features in bid to rival Patreon - Jan 31, 2019 - Static channel backup PR merged into LN - Jan 31, 2019 - The NYDFS grants another Bitlicense to ATM operator - Jan 31, 2019 - @pwuille currently proposing the “MiniScript” language to describe BTC output locking conditions for practical composition - Jan 31, 2019 - Fidelity is in the “final testing” phase for its new digital asset business - Jan 31, 2019 - Hardware wallet PR #109 just got merged so that @Trezor no longer requires user interaction for PIN - Jan 31, 2019 - CBOE, VanEck & SolidX filed a new & improved bitcoin ETF proposal. - Jan 31, 2019 - Casa Node code is now open sourced - Jan 31, 2019 - Next Bitoin halving in roughly 497 days - Jan 31, 2019 - BTCPay released 22.214.171.124 - Jan 31, 2019 - @binance now lets users purchase cryptos using Visa and Mastercard credit. - Jan 31, 2019 - Bitfury to Launch Bitcoin Operations in Paraguay - Jan 31, 2019 - Coinbase introduces very generous affiliate program - Jan 30, 2019 - DOJO Trusted Node bitcoin full node. Coming Early 2019 - Jan 30, 2019 - FastBitcoins.com Enables Cash-for-Bitcoin Exchange Via the Lightning Network - Jan 30, 2019 - TD Ameritrade says clients want cryptocurrency investment options - company plans major announcement in 'first half of 2019' - Jan 30, 2019 - Storage component of Fidelity's @DigitalAssets live, with some assets under management, @nikhileshde - Jan 29, 2019 - lightning mainnet has reached 600 BTC capacity - Jan 29, 2019 - Drivechain shows picture of Grin side chain and suggests might be ready in 2 month - Jan 29, 2019 - Lightning labs iOS neutrino wallet in testing stage now - Jan 29, 2019 - Aliant offering cryptocurrency processing free-of-charge - Jan 29, 2019 - Chainstone’s Regulator product to manage assets on the way - Jan 29, 2019 - Fidelity Investments’ new crypto custody service may officially launch in March. - Jan 29, 2019 - Gemini's becomes FIRST crypto EXCHANGE and CUSTODIAN to complete a SOC 2 Review by Deloitte - Jan 29, 2019 - Iran has lifted the ban on Bitcoin and cryptocurrency - Jan 29, 2019 - Confidential Transactions being added into Litecoin announcement - Jan 28, 2019 - http://FastBitcoins.com
Enables Cash-for-Bitcoin Exchange Via the Lightning Network - Jan 28, 2019 - Germany’s largest online food delivery platform now accepts btc - Jan 27, 2019 - Launching a Bitcoin Developers School in Switzerland - Jan 27, 2019 - RTL release v0.1.13-alpha Lightning Build repository released - Jan 27, 2019 - The first pay-per-page fantasy novel available to Lightning Network. - Jan 27, 2019 - Numerous tools become available to write messages transmitted with Blockstream Satellite - Jan 26, 2019; - BTCPay 126.96.36.199 released - Jan 26,2019 - WordPress + WooCommerce + BTCPay Plugin is now live - Jan 25, 2019 - Juan Guaido has been promoting #Bitcoin since 2014 is new interim president of Venezuela - Jan 25, 2019 - Morgan Creek funds @RealBlocks - Jan 25, 2019 - Coinbase integrates TurboTax - Jan 25, 2019 - Robinhood received Bitlicense - Jan 25, 2019 - Anchor Labs launches custody - Jan 25, 2019 - NYSE Arca files w/ @BitwiseInvest for BTC ETF approval - Jan 25, 2019 - South Korea, Seoul, Busan & Jeju Island currently working to create pro crypto economic zones. - Jan 25, 2019 - valerio-vaccaro/Liquid-dashboard - Jan 25, 2019 - Bermuda to launch crypto friendly bank - Jan 25, 2019 - Mobile Bitcoin Wallet BRD Raises $15 Million, Plans for Expansion in Asia - Jan 25, 2019 - BullBitcoin rolling out alpha access of platform - Jan 25, 2019 - Electrum Wallet Release 3.3.3 - Jan 25, 2019 - Bitrefill, purchase Bitcoin and have it delivered directly over LN - Jan 25, 2019 - South Korean crypto exchange Bithumb looking to go public in USA - Jan 24, 2019 - Bitcoin Exchanges Don’t Need Money Transmitter Licenses in Pennsylvania - Jan 24, 2019 - US; New Hampshire Bill Aims to Legalize Bitcoin for State Payments in 2020 - Jan 24, 2019 - Robinhood, LibertyX Receive Licenses from New York Regulators - Jan 24, 2019 - Bakkt Bitcoin futures contract details released - Jan 24, 2019 - Blockstream CryptoFeed V3 now includes 30+ venues and 200M+ updates per day - Jan 24, 2019 - Binance Jersey – The Latest Binance European Exchange - Jan 2019
- Bitfury Rolls Out Lightning Peach, Its Own Suite of Lightning Tools - Jan 24, 2019
- Good news. v3.6.2 just hit the play store for Android. - Jan 24, 2019
- Bitrefill - LN now accounts for more payments than alts - Jan 24, 2019
- proofd.app allows you to store a checksum of a doc on the blockchain - Jan 24, 2019
- 487 days until bitcoin halving - Jan 23, 2019
- New #GalaxyS10 coming with ‘Samsung Blockchain KeyStore’- Jan 24, 2019
- Proof-of-Reserves tool for Bitcoin github.com/stevenroose/reserves - Jan 24, 2019
- Lightning Network Pac-Man Arcade introduced - Jan 23, 2019
- bitlum.io - mainnet Lightning Network Bitcoin wallet beta ready - Jan 23, 2019
- Paywithmoon beta browser extension lets you shop directly on http://Amazon.com from Coinbase account - Jan 23, 2009
- Cboe pulls its long-awaited bitcoin ETF application as government is shutdown. Will refile later on - Jan 23, 2019
- Coinbase is focusing on expanding its trading platform throughout Asia. - Jan 23, 2019
- The Pennsylvania Department of Banking and Securities (DoBS) says cryptocurrency exchanges in the state do not require Money Transmission Business Licenses. - Jan 23, 2019
- Seed CX Chicago-based exchange startup launched a bitcoin spot trading market for major clients - Jan 23, 2019
- Bitcoin [BTC] payments could go live on Japanese E-Commerce giant Rakuten soon - Jan 23, 2019
- South Africa releases draft cryptocurrency regulation, which will implement bank management of Bitcoin - Jan 23, 2019
- 188.8.131.52 Btcpay released Jan 23 2019
- LibrePatron has been integrated to the btcpayserver-docker project - Jan 23 2019
- LightningPeach simple access to instant and cheap payments - Dec 2019
- Expect JP Morgan To Use Bakkt’s Infrastructure - Jan 2019
- Tallycoin introduces paid posts (like @YallsOrg) and subscriptions (like Patreon) - Jan 2019
- Eclair Mobile v0.3.17 - Jan 2019
- Bitcoin Sidechain RSK Name Service (RNS) - Jan 2019
- new zap iOS alpha - Jan 2019
- Release Candidate of RaspiBlitz 1.0 is out - Jan 2019
- Joule release is up (0.4.0) - Jan 2019
- Wyoming #blockchain bills have passed their house of origination & are moving to the other house - Jan 2019
- Cyphernode v0.1.1 released - Jan 2019
- BitBlenderhas an option to pay Lightning Bolt 11 invoices - Jan 2019
- Dutch bank ABN AMRO experiments with own Bitcoin custody services - Jan 2019
- Hold invoice feature close to being added for lnd. Allows receiver to choose whether to settle or cancel - Jan 2019
- Bakkt is looking to make a slew of hires to build out its digital asset ecosystem, mobile app - Jan 2019
- https://github.com/michaelsdunn1/rpi-lightning-node-ansible deploying LN on Raspberry Pi - Jan 2019
- Coinbase intros cross-border wire transfers, expanded trading/custody services for Asia, U.K. & Europe institutional customers - Jan 2019
- Davos: First-ever Arabic and Hindi translations of the Satoshi white paper. - Jan 2019
- ACINQ/eclair-mobile - 478 - Jan 24, 2009
- bitcoin/bitcoin commits - 19354 - Jan 24, 2009
- lightningnetwork/lnd - 6153 commits - Jan 24, 2019
- c-lightning 5143 - Jan 24, 2019
- rust-bitcoin/rust-lightning - 834 - Jan 25, 2019
- lightninglabs/neutrino - 406 - Jan 25, 2019
- bitcoinj/bitcoinj - 3180 - Feb 9, 2019
- BlueWallet/BlueWallet - 901 - Feb 9, 2019
- Blockstream/satellite - 189 - Feb 9, 2019
Nodes and Market Dominance
- Bitcoin nodes 9964 - Jan 24, 2019
- Bitcoin market dominance 52.4% - Jan 24, 2019
- Bitcoin Core 0.17.1 - Dec 2018
- MAST Smart contracts - TBA
- Testnet release of Schnorr signature - TBA
- Mainnet release of Schnorr signature - TBA
- Bitcoin node count reaches 15,000 - TBA
- Next Halving - May 2, 2020
- Over $3.2 trillion was sent using bitcoin - 2018
- Grayscale launching Stellar fund - Jan 2019
- Nasdaq / VanEck Bitcoin Futures - Q1, 2019
- CBOE-backed VanEck/SolidX Bitcoin ETF - February 27, 2019.
- Bakkt acquires “certain assets” of RCG - Jan 2019
- Bakkt trading - April 2019
- Winklevoss ETF - June 2019
- Fidelity starts selling Bitcoin - June 2019
- Bitmain declares bankruptcy - TBA
- Neutrino - Dec 2018 (available in lnd node)
- LN Channel splicing - June 2019
- LN Sphinx-send - June 2019
- LN eltoo and Channel Factories - TBA
- Atomic Multi-Path Payments (AMP) main net - TBA
- LN node count reaches 10,000 - TBA
- LN: Watchtowers - TBA
- LND channel fund backups - TBA
- LN on Electrum - JTBA
- LN Splicing capability - TBA
- Mainnet release of Lightning Labs desktop - TBA
- Mainnet release of Lightning Labs mobile - JTBA
- 2-3 Major exchanges integrate LN - TBA
- Coinbase integrates LN - TBA
Will update this section when I hear new developments
- Samourai 0.99.05 - Staggered Delivery to Ricochet - Jan 2019
- Ledger X shipping - Mar 2019
- Hardware wallet integrations for Wasabi - TBA
- Hardware wallet integrations for LN - TBA
- Eclair v0.2-beta9 - Jan 2019
- lnd v0.5.1-beta - Nov 2018
- Ride The Lightning - A full feature web app for managing LND node - Jan 2019
LN Extensions / Launchers
- LightningJoule - chrome ext - Jan 2019
- tippin_me - tip jar - Jan 2019
- Cyphernode_io - API kit - Jan 2019
- Pierre Rochard's lnd launcher - Jan 2019
- Blockstream Blockchain Explorer - Dec 2018
LN Desktop wallets:
- Zap Desktop v0.3.3-beta - Jan 2019
LN Mobile wallets:
- BlueWallet - Dec 2018
- BlueWallet introduces Lapp Browser and Lapp Marketplace v3.6.0 - Jan 2019
- Wallet of Satoshi - 10,000 payments - Jan 2019
- Eclair Mobile v0.3.16 - Jan 2019
- Breez Wallet for Android - Jan 2019
- lntxbot (send and receive lightning payments via telegram) - Jan 2019
- zap wallet - Oct 2018
- Nodes: 6,035 nodes - Feb 8, 2019
- Nodes: 5,500, Channels 20,800 - Jan 2019
- Casa - Oct 2018
- Lightning In A Box - Dec 2018
- lndash - a Python dashboard for your LN node - Jan 2019
- glightning: a c-lightning plugin - Jan 2019
- BitPatron a Bitcoin Lightning Patreon Alternative - Jan 2019
- Crypto Garage issues a stablecoin pegged to JPY - Jan 2019
- Wyoming Introduces Bill Offering Cryptocurrencies Legal Clarity To Attract Blockchain Business - Jan 2019
- Binance Decentralized Exchange (DEX) - Jan 2019
- Coinstar launching BTC in stores - Jan 2019
- Coinstar adds #Bitcoin to 20,000+ machines worldwide - Jan 2019
- Binance Jersey opens - Jan 2019
- Indonesia’s First Billion-Dollar Unicorn Acquires Philippine Bitcoin Wallet coins.ph - Jan 2019
- Xapo shifting services from Hong Kong to Switzerland - Jan 2019
- LightningNetwork payments on @BTCBITNET exchange - Jan 2019
- BTCPAY offering fiat exchange - TBA
Please comment if you have any ideas on dates. Many of these dates are placeholders waiting for me to update. If you comment then I will update the post.
Get 28 bitcoin exchange PHP scripts on CodeCanyon. Buy bitcoin exchange PHP scripts from $7. All from our global community of web developers. Auto Exchanger Script v6 help you to create your own Currency Exchange Script that can start your own E-currency Exchanger Script for buying and selling perfectmoney, bitcoin, paypal, payza, webmoney, solidtrustpay, etc. Xcrow is a bitcoin exchange script for safe exchange of bitcoin between buyer and seller. It promotes instantaneous exchange of bitcoin. It's the best bitcoin exchange script currently in the market. It has the latest and advanced technology that is adaptable and modern. It is fully responsive and provides top notched features to manage your clients. It has something to do with the CEO of the New York Stock Exchange. Here’s what you need to do next... 3 Simple Steps To Make Your First Paycheck Online. Step 1. Open Your FREE Trading Account. Step 2. Make A $250 Deposit. Step 3. Complete Your Rapid Fire Coaching Session. What People Are Saying About Bitcoin Pro System. Published 3 days ago. Crystal Recoski. Got started yesterday. Already ... HYIP Manager Script and Initial Coin Offering (ICO) support payment through Bitcoin , ethereum, crypto currency, with auto withdraw and Deposit.
Ultimate Full Featured Currency Exchange Website Script Developed with Laravel With this script you can create your own website for Buy Sell exchange of electronic currency (Such As: Bitcoin ... Bitcoin Exchange Script From Bitdeal - Bitdeal sells unique and high tech bitcoin exchange trading script to start your own bitcoin exchange website. Get a F... Bitcoin Bitcoin Hack Hack Bitcoin Script Bitcoin Hack Script Hack Bitcoin Cryptocurrency ETH,BTC,BCH,ETC bitcoin software 2019, bitcoin software generator, bitcoin software wallet, bitcoin ... 1 BITCOIN HACK SCRIPT FREE UPDATES 2020 bitcoin faucet pro. Loading... Unsubscribe from bitcoin faucet pro? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 3.71K. Loading ... Create a trading Bitcoin market place, where clients can buy and sell bitcoins. bitcoins market v1.0 php script. our email address is been added to that video ( [email protected] ) just to ...